عنوان مقاله [English]
The present paper challenges the dominant framework that continues to direct the current measures of the US public diplomacy and emphasizes that this public diplomacy without major structural changes, is lacking ethical legitimacy. An overview of the measures taken by the US public diplomacy in the past shows that such measures mainly embodied the one-way communicational current by relying on the portrayal management. By using the theories of hegemony, American exceptionalism, Orientalism, and cultural Imperialism, the author explains the theoretical framework for the analysis of the US public Diplomacy. Accordingly, the author believes that public diplomacy goes beyond political propaganda (or psychological warfare) only if it uses the two-way communicational methods and be symmetric in the goal. In other words, the public diplomacy should not only maintain the interests of the country of the origin but also the interests of the two sides. This is at a time when many scholars have been challenging the present American public diplomacy for adverting to the communicative methods of the Cold War which have often been one-way. Based on the theory of the superior public diplomacy, symmetry means that if a change ensures the common interests of all, the two sides (for example, the US government and the people of its target countries) will be ready to change their behavior. Therefore, the relations depending on the public democracy should not be limited to symbolic relationships (such as media messages), rather they should include the real relations. So, in addition to the two-way media relations, the practical consequences of these relations should consider both the opinions and the interests of the opposing sides.