عنوان مقاله [English]
Involvement of several people in the preparation and publication of newspapers and realization of the press criminal phenomenon has resulted in the complexity of the issue of criminal responsibility (supervision, participation and collaboration) in the Iranian law. Author, journalist, managing director, license holder and chief editor are among the most important members of the press who have individual responsibilities before the press law. At parts of the law, these responsibilities address all and are inclusive of all members of the press-- as for example Chapter IV (the boundaries of the press)-- and sometimes the law directly recognizes the author responsible as mentioned in Note 3 (Additional Act approved on April 18, 2000). With respect to the damage criminal liability of the press can inflict on a major portion of the society, such responsibility has a particularly sensitive status.
Nevertheless, Iran’s press law has made great progress in defining criminal responsibility and has always been criticized, too. This paper aims to explain the distinctive theories in the domain of criminal liability and review the methods of distribution of such liability with an emphasis on the managing director and author in Iran’s press law in the past and present, and also conduct a comparative study of the theories in each historical era. It is based on the assumption that Iran’s press law does not clearly follow a single theory in identifying the criminal responsibility and has faced the liability of press offenders with complexity.