واکاوی و کاربست روش شناختی تحلیل قاب در رسانه های خبری از منظر رویکرد کیفی

نوع مقاله : روش شناسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم ارتباطات، دانشکده علوم ارتباطات، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی (نویسنده مسئول)، تهران، ایران

2 دکتری ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد سبزوار، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

تحلیل قاب از جمله روشهای مورد استفاده در رسانهها محسوب میشود. با مقاله رابرت انتمن در سال 1993، تحلیل قاب به یک روش مهم تبدیل شد. از زمانی که گافمن، مفهوم تحلیل قاب را معرفی کرد و انتمن در زمینة تحلیل رسانههای جمعی آن را به کار گرفت، محققان این روش را برای درک نحوة ارائة اطلاعات، توسط رسانههای چاپی و سایر رسانهها، مورد استفاده قرار دادهاند. امروزه تحلیل قاب با متیو نیسبت وارد مسیر جدیدی شده است و در ارتباطات علم و بازتاب مشکلات زیستمحیطی، تغییرات آب و هوایی، مسائل علمی و غیره مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. مطالعههایی که از تحلیل قاب به عنوان روششناسی استفاده کردهاند از رویکردهای گوناگون نظری و روششناختی بهره جستهاند، که منجر به تعاریف عملی متفاوتی شده و بیشتر آنها نیز تجربی و مختص اهداف مطالعه مربوط بوده است. این مقاله، در صدد ارائة یک صورتبندی کلی از تحلیل قاب کیفی در رسانههای خبری است که با متمایز کردن آن از نوع کمی و نقد رویکرد کیفی آغاز میشود و به شناخت انواع تحلیل قاب "هرمنوتیک یا کیفی"، " کلگرایانه دستی"، "تقلیلگرایانه دستی" و "زبانشناختی و رایانهمحور" و نقاط ضعف و قوت هر یک از آنها میپردازد. در ادامه به رابطة تحلیل قاب، با سایر روشها از جمله تحلیل گفتمان و تحلیل محتوا پرداخته میشود و همچنین در پایان، نحوة کاربرد آنها را در فرایند تحقیق شرح میدهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and methodological application of frame analysis in news media from the qualitative perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoud taghiabadi 1
  • hamid taghiabadi 2
1 PhD student of Communication Sciences, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University (corresponding author, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD. in Persian literature, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar branch, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Frame analysis is among the methods used for media studies. Following the publication of a paper by Robert Antman in 1993 paper, frame analysis has become an important method. Since Goffman introduced the concept of frame analysis and Antman applied it in the field of mass media analysis, researchers have used this method to understand how information is presented by print as well as other media outlets. Today, frame analysis conducted by Matthew Nisbet, has taken a new direction and is used in areas such as science communication and reflection on environmental problems, climate change, scientific issues, etc. Studies that have used frame analysis as a methodology, have benefited from various theoretical and methodological approaches, which have led to different practical definitions, and most of them have been experimental and specific to the objectives of the related study. This article aims to present a general formulation about qualitative frame analysis in news media, which begins by differentiating it from the quantitative and critical review and the qualitative approach, and recognizing the types of "hermeneutic or qualitative", "manual holistic", "reductionist" frame analysis and "linguistic and computer-oriented" and the weak and strong characteristics of both of them. Then, the relationship between frame analysis and other methods such as discourse analysis and content analysis have been discussed, and finally, their use has been explored in the research process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Frame Analysis
  • News Media
  • Framing
  • Newspaper
  • Qualitative Analysis
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